NAME
Math::ematica - Perl extension for connecting Mathematica(TM)
SYNOPSIS
use Math::ematica qw(:PACKET :TYPE :FUNC);
WARNING
This is alpha software. User visible changes can happen any time.
The module is completely rewritten. Literally no line of the old stuff
is used (don't ask - I've learned a few things since these days ;-). If
you are using the old 1.006 version, note that the interface has
changed. If there is an overwhelming outcry, I will provide some
backward compatibility stuff.
Feel free to suggest modifications and/or extensions. I don not use
Mathematica for real work right now and may fail to foresee the most
urgent needs. Even if you think that the interface is great, you are
invited to complete the documentation (and fix grammos and typos). Since
I am no native English speaker, I will delay the writing of real
documentation until the API has stabilized.
I developed this module using Mathematica 3.0.1 on a Linux 2.0.30 box. I
verified that it still works with Mathematica 4.0 for Solaris. Let me
know, if it does work with other versions of Mathematica or does not
work on other *nix flavors.
DESCRIPTION
The `Math::ematica' module provides an interface to the MathLink(TM)
library. Functions are not exported and should be called as methods.
Therefore the Perl names have the 'ML' prefix stripped. Since Perl can
handle multiple return values, methods fetching elements from the link
return the values instead of passing results in reference parameters.
The representation of the data passed between Perl and Mathematica is
straight forward exept the symbols which are represented as blessed
scalars in Perl.
Exported constants
PACKET
The `PACKET' tag identifies constants used as packet types.
print "Got result packet" if $link->NextPacket == RETURNPKT;
TYPE The `TYPE' tag identifies constants used as elements types.
print "Got a symbol" if $link->GetNext == MLTKSYM;
Exported functions
FUNC The `FUNC' tag currently only contains the `symbol' function which
returns the symbol for a given name.
$sym = symbol 'Sin';
The plain interface
This set of methods gives you direct access to the MathLink function.
Don't despair if you don't know them too much. There is a convenient
layer ontop of them ;-). Methods below are only commented if they do
behave different than the corresponding C functions. Look in your
MathLink manual for details.
`new'
The constructor is just a wrapper around `MLOpenArgv'.
$ml = new Math::ematica '-linklaunch', '-linkname', 'math -mathlink';
The link is automatically activated on creation and will be closed upon
destruction. So `MLCloseLink' is not accessible; use `undef' or lexical
variables to store links. If you use a global variable and dont force
the link close, you will get an optional warning during global
destruction.
`ErrorMessage'
print $link->ErrorMessage;
`EndPacket'
`Flush'
`NewPacket'
`NextPacket'
`Ready'
`PutSymbol'
`PutString'
`PutInteger'
`PutDouble'
`PutFunction'
`GetNext'
`GetInteger'
`GetDouble'
`GetString'
The method does the appropriate `MLDisownString' call for you.
`GetSymbol'
The module does the appropriate `MLDisownSymbol' call for you. It also
blesses the result string into the package `Math::ematica::symbol'.
`Function'
Returns the function name and argument count in list context. In scalar
contex only the function name is returned.
`GetRealList'
Returns the array of reals.
The convenience interface
`PutToken'
Puts a single token according to the passed data type.
$link->PutToken(1); # MLPutInteger
Symbols are translated to `MLPutFunction' if the arity is provided as
aditional parameter.
$link->PutToken(symbol 'Pi'); # MLPutSymbol
$link->PutToken(symbol 'Sin', 1); # MLPutFunction
`read_packet'
Reads the current packet and returns it as nested data structure. The
implementaion is not complete. But any packet made up of `MLTKREAL',
`MLTKINT', `MLTKSTR', `MLTKSYM', and `MLTKFUNC' should translate
correctely. A function symbol `List' is dropped automatically. So the
Mathematica expression `List[1,2,3]' translates to the Perl expression
`[1,2,3]'.
*Mabybe this is *too* convenient?*.
`call'
Call is the main convenience interface. You will be able to do most if
not all using this call.
Note that the syntax is nearly the same as you are used to as *FullForm*
in Mathematica. Only the function names are moved inside the brackets
and separated with ',' from the arguments. The method returns the nested
data structures read by `read_packet'.
$link->call([symbol 'Sin', 3.14159265358979/2]); # returns something near 1
To get a table of values use:
$link->call([symbol 'Table',
[symbol 'Sin', symbol 'x'],
[symbol 'List', symbol 'x', 0, 1, 0.1]]);
This returns a reference to an array of doubles.
You may omit the first `symbol'. *Maybe we should choose the default
mapping to *Symbol* an require *Strings*s to be marked?*
`install'
If you find this too ugly, you may `install' Mathematica functions as
Perl functions using the `install' method.
$link->install('Sin',1);
$link->install('Pi');
$link->install('N',1);
$link->install('Divide',2);
Sin(Divide(Pi(),2.0)) # should return 1 (on machines which can
# represent '2.0' *exactely* in a double ;-)
The `install' method takes the name of the mathematica function, the
number of arguments and optional the name of the Perl function as
argument.
$link->install('Sin',1,'sin_by_mathematica');
Make shure that you do not call any *installed* function after the
`$link' has gone. Wild things will happen!
`send_packet'
Is the sending part of `call'. It translates the expressions passed to a
Mathematica package and puts it on the link.
`register'
This method allows to register your Perl functions to Mathematica.
*Registered* functions may be called during calculations.
sub addtwo {
$_[0]+$_[1];
}
$link->register('AddTwo', \&addtwo, 'Integer', 'Integer');
$link->call([symbol 'AddTwo',12, 3]) # returns 15
You may register functions with unspecified argument types using undef:
sub do_print {
print @_;
}
$link->register('DoPrint', undef);
$link->call(['DoPrint',12]);
$link->call(['DoPrint',"Hello"]);
`main'
This method allows to have Perl scripts installed in a running
Mathematica session. The Perl script try.pl might look like this:
use Math::ematica;
sub addtwo {
my ($x, $y) = @_;
$x + $y;
}
$ml->register('AddTwo', \&addtwo, 'Integer', 'Integer');
$ml->main;
Inside the Mathematica do:
Install["try.pl"]
AddTwo[3,5];
Admittedly, adding two numbers would be easier inside Mathematica. But
how about DNS lookups or SQL Databases?
AUTHOR
Ulrich Pfeifer
SEE ALSO
See also the perl(1) manpage and your Mathematica and MathLink
documentation. Also check the t/*.t files in the distribution.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
I wish to thank Jon Orwant of *The Perl Journal*, Nancy Blachman from
*The Mathematica Journal* and Brett H. Barnhart from *Wolfram Research*
Jon brought the earlier versions of this module to the attention of
Nancy Blachman. She in turn did contact Brett H. Barnhart who was so
kind to provide a trial license which made this work possible.
So subscribe to *The Perl Journal* and *The Mathematica Journal* if you
are not subscribed already if you use this module (a Mathematica license
is needed anyway). You would be nice to nice people and may even read
something more about this module one day ;-)
Special thanks to Randal L. Schwartz for naming this module.
Thanks also to Richard Jones for providing a login on a Solaris box so
that I could check that the module still works with Mathematica 4.0.
Copyright
The Math:ematica module is Copyright (c) 1996,1997,1998,2000 Ulrich
Pfeifer. Germany. All rights reserved.
You may distribute under the terms of either the GNU General Public
License or the Artistic License, as specified in the Perl README file.
Mathematica and MathLink are registered trademarks of Wolfram Research.